Reported speech in assertive sentences

Reported speech in assertive sentences Here we discuss how to report  a direct speech in assertive sentence. A direct speech in assertive sentence is reported in  ‘two ways’  on the basis of  the absence and presence of reporting objects. I   If there is no reporting object,    (say/says that)  or  (said that) or  (will/shall say that)   is […]

Change of Words in Reported speech

Certain words denoting, adverbs, conjunctions, demonstrative pronouns etc … in direct speech will be changed, while being reported, as follows. Direct Speech                                            Indirect or reported speech Now                                                             then Next                                                             the coming/ the following Today                                           […]

Reported speech ( rules for changing persons)

Rules for changing persons in Reported speech. We have studied that the ‘first person pronouns’ of ‘direct speech’ will be changed into  ‘third person pronouns’ ,     and   ‘second person pronouns’  will be changed into  either ‘first person’ or  ‘third person’  in reported speech. But these changes are occurred  ‘depending on  the reporting object’, […]

Reported speech (Changes in second person)

‘Second person’ in direct speech is changed into  either  ‘first person’  or  ‘third person’  in  reported speech, as shown below. Direct speech         ————->              Reported speech Second person  ——————>  First person      or   Third person You (Sub)                 […]

Reported speech( changes in first person pronouns)

In this topic, we are going to discuss the  changes in first person pronouns and also in their  ‘possessive adjectives’,  ‘possessive pronouns’  and  ’emphatic’ or ‘reflexive pronouns’.   Here, we don’t have to concern about the tense form of the reporting verbs. I.  ‘First person’ pronouns in ‘direct speech’  is  changed into   ‘third person’ pronouns in ‘reported speech’, as follows, […]

Tenses and its uses– An overview

PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 1   Simple present is used to denote an action that is done at the time of speaking. eg: The students conduct a musical programme.   2  To denote a habitual action. eg: Mary writes blogs    3  To denote an action expressing a general truth or a fact. eg: People often […]

The pattern of tenses at a glance

 Study the topic Tenses  thoroughly before going through it.  This topic is intended only  to a quick revision.   SIMPLE  ( PRESENT / PAST / FUTURE )  TENSE S + ( do/does+ V ) ( did + V ) ( will/ shall + V) + O.   ( PRESENT / PAST / FUTURE ) CONTINUOUS TENSE S + […]

Concord, Exceptional Rules

  Concord,  the exceptional rules. The rules for  the agreement between subject and verb  have  some exceptions  and the rules are listed below as  Concord, the exceptional rules 1  If the subject is ‘ I ‘  in present tense ,   only the plural auxiliaries ‘ do’   and   ‘ have ‘,  are   […]

Future Perfect Continuous tense

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Future perfect continuous tense is used to denote an action that is continuing   ‘at  present’ and will be continuing ‘until a point of time in future’. Let’s look at the idea that the following two sentences express. James is watching T.V.  He will be watching it by 6 P.M. Here […]

Future Perfect Tense

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE Future perfect tense is used to denote an action to be completed within a fixed time of future. Eg; They will have finished their work  within  5.P.M. Here,  what the example says is that,  the action  ‘finish’ is to be completed  within 5 P.M.     As  5 P.M. is at present […]

Future Continuous Tense

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE Future continuous tense is used to denote an action continuing at   some time in future.  As it is a continuous tense, the ‘ing’ form of the verb should be used,  and  also, the ‘be’ forms should be used as auxiliary verbs to show in which tense the ‘verb‘ is continuing. Here, the  […]

Simple Future Tense

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Simple future tense is used to denote an action that is to be done at some time in future. The pattern of simple future tense is  S + will/ shall + V + O Here, the auxiliary verbs ‘will’ and ‘shall’ ( the modal auxiliaries – see in the topic Auxiliary verbs/ […]

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE From the title,  we can  say that the ‘action’ here is in continuous form.   So ‘ing’ form of the verb is used here. When ‘ing’ form is used,   ‘Be’ forms should be there as auxiliary verbs,  to show in which tense the verb is continuing.   Here,  from the title,  we can […]

Past Perfect Tense

PAST PERFECT TENSE By the word ‘perfect’ in the  title,  we can understand that the ‘action’ being mentioned here is already completed and  by the word ‘past’, we can conclude that the ‘completed action’ is  happened   in the past tense. So,  when we make  the  pattern of past perfect tense, the  form of  ‘Have’, that […]

Past Continuous Tense

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE   Past continuous tense is used to denote an action that was continuing in the past. Eg: John was reading an article.       Martin and his wife were travelling to Kent.       You were searching grammar in the site.   As we studied Present continuous tense and its pattern, […]

Simple Past Tense

SIMPLE PAST TENSE Simple past tense is used to denote an  ‘action’ that happened  ‘at a point of time’  in the past. Eg: Peter delivered a beautiful  speech in a function yesterday. So, we have mentioned the usage of simple past tense and,  seen an example. Now,   as usual,  we have to make the pattern […]

Present Perfect Continuous

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE The present perfect continuous tense is  used to denote a continuing action like present continuous tense.  But there is a difference between them.   If present continuous tense is  normally used to show an action going on at the time of speaking, present perfect continuous tense is used to denote an action […]

Present Perfect Tense

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE First of all, let’s just analyse the title.  Here,  we know that the word in the title  present means now.    Then,  what  the word  perfect  means here…?   Don’t worry,   in  tense,  it means a completed verb, that is a completed action.  So,  we can say that  ‘this completed verb […]

Present Continuous

PRESENT CONTINUOUS    or   PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE   Normally,  in continuous tenses,  ‘ing’ form of the verbs,  that is, the gerund form of the verbs  are  used to show continuity,  and  the auxiliaries  that help them are the forms of ‘Be’ ( Be-forms), that is,  ‘is’, ‘am’, ‘are’, ‘was’, ‘were’.  Here, the title  Present continuous tense  says […]

Simple Present Tense

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE   or   PRESENT INDEFINITE We have studied in the topic,  ‘Sentences‘  that the general pattern of a  sentence is  ‘S + V + O’.  In this pattern the Verb is supposed to be in any tense according to  the time of the actions. That is , the auxiliaries that help the […]

Types of sentences

Different types of sentences. On the  basis of  ‘ nature ‘ and  ‘ construction ‘, there are different types of sentences.   On the basis of  ‘nature’ sentences can be divided into ‘4 types’. They are I.  ASSERTIVE  OR DECLARATIVE SENTENCES       Denoting ‘a statement’ or  ‘a declaration’. eg: The President visited Paris The […]

Concord, the subject verb agreement

THE  CONCORD  OR  THE SUBJECT  VERB AGREEMENT There is an ‘agreement’ between ‘subjects’ and ‘verbs’,  named ‘Concord’,  and  the agreement is that, if the ‘subject’ is ‘singular’  the ‘verb’  should be ‘singular’.   Likewise , if the ‘subject’ is ‘plural’ the ‘verb’ should  also be plural. It is ‘auxiliary verbs’ that makes the ‘verb’ either […]

Verbs, the real sense makers

Importance and classifications of  verbs, the real sense makers   In the topic,  SENTENCE,  we have studied that the general pattern or structure of a sentence is ‘S + V+ O’,  that is,  Subject + Verb + Object. eg: Robert spent all the time for watching base ball, Here, in this topic, Verbs, the real sense […]

Direct and indirect objects

DIRECT  AND INDIRECT OBJECTS There are mainly two types of objects,  Direct Objects  and Indirect Objects. The question about  Direct and Indirect Objects   arises only in the case of a sentence having two objects. Before explaining  it,   let’s  just go through the given sentence.  Mathew gave Mary a diamond necklace. Here we can see […]

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