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Reported speech in assertive sentences

Reported speech in assertive sentences

Here we discuss how to report  a direct speech in assertive sentence.

A direct speech in assertive sentence is reported in  ‘two ways’  on the basis of  the absence and presence of reporting objects.

I   If there is no reporting object,    (say/says that)  or  (said that) or  (will/shall say that)   is to be written after the reporting subject as explained below in detail,   and   then the assertive sentence can be reported  by applying all the changes  discussed in earlier topics.

  • (Say/ says that) is written,  when  the reporting verb is  in simple present,  according to the numbers of the subject and   then,  there will be no change in the tense form of the direct speech.

Eg: We say,” The exam will be cancelled”

( no reporting object, and also the reporting statement is in simple present)

       We say that the exam will be cancelled

 (  ‘say that’)  is written,   as the subject is ‘plural’, and  the tense form of the direct speech is not changed,   as the reporting verb is in simple present)

  • (Said that) is  written when the reporting verb is in simple past form and   the tense form of the  direct  speech will be changed.

Eg: James said , “  I have bought a chain for my wife”

( no reporting object and  the direct speech is in simple past form)

James said that he had bought a chain for his wife

 ( as the reporting verb is in simple past form, the tense form of the direct speech is changed)

  • (Will/shall that)  is written when the reporting verb  is  in simple future form and  also the tense form of the direct speech will not be changed.

Eg; He shall say,” I will not come tomorrow”

 ( there is no reporting object and the reporting verb is in simple future form)

He shall say that he  shall not come tomorrow

( as the reporting verb is in simple future form, the tense form of the reported speech is not changed and  ‘shall’ is used instead of ‘will’ to maintain the serious sense of the future  in the sentence as we studied in the topic  simple future tense).

 

II     If there is a reporting object,   (tell/tells + R.O +that)  or  ( told + R.O +that)  or  (will/shall + tell + R.O +  that) is to be written after the reporting subject and  then we can report the assertive sentence as per the rules we have studied earlier.  ( here  ‘R.O’. stands for  ‘Reporting Object’. )

  • (Tell/tells +R.O + that)  is to be written after the reporting subject,  when the reporting verb is in simple present form and  then the tense form of the direct speech is not changed.

Eg:  James says to me “  I often go to gents beauty parlour” 

( reporting object is ‘me’ and  the reporting verb is in simple present form)

James tells me that he often goes to gents beauty parlour

( here the tense form of the direct speech is not  changed as the reporting verb is in simple present form)

  • (Told + R.O + that) is to be written when the reporting verb is in simple past form and then the tense form of the direct speech is changed.

Eg:  Varghese said to his uncle, “ I saw you yesterday at market”

( here there is a reporting object ‘his uncle’ and the reporting verb is in simple past form. So the tense form of the direct speech is to be changed as follows)

Varghese told his uncle that he had seen him the last day at market.

 

  • (Will/shall + tell + R.O + that)  is to be written when the reporting verb is in  simple future form  and  then the tense form of the direct speech will not be changed, as we discussed in the topic exceptional rules in reported speech.

Eg: They will say to the manager, “ We can’t afford our daily expenses with our salary”

      ( here the reporting object  is  ‘the manager’ and  also the reporting verb is in simple future.  So the tense form of the direct speech is not changed)

They will tell the manager that they can’t afford their daily expenses with their salary

 

So, we have studied how to report assertive sentences.

 

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